public publications


We research the evolution, ecology and diversity of scale insects and non-biting midges (and occasionally some other topics). We used to co-habitate a lab, but have gone our separate ways. Each of us still needed a way to make PDFs of our publications available. Some of us were in debt to others of us for quite a lot of wine. And so this site.

Scale insects (>7,000 spp.) are ubiquitous, sedentary, sap-sucking plant parasites, closely related to aphids. Some species are extremely dangerous agricultural pests. Others are cultivated for dyes (e.g. cochineal scales) or lacquer (e.g. lac scales), or for use in biological control of invasive plants. Scale insects are characterized by unusual development and sexual systems. For example, the adult female of all scale insects is paedomorphic (resembling the immature stages) and, in many scale insect species, sex-determination of males is effected by the elimination of the paternal genome.

Non-biting midges (>10,000 spp.) are the geographically most widely-distributed group of holometabolous insects (those having the life stages: egg; larva; pupa; adult). Species are known from the tropics to the arctic and antarctic, and from elevations up to 5600m in the Himalayas to depths of 1000m beneath the surface of Lake Baikal. Likewise, their physiological tolerance is superlative, with species able to tolerate extremes of temperature, pH, and salinity. Species dominate aquatic habits and are unavoidably encountered by freshwater ecologists.